Ruins of a city from nearly 5,000 years ago have been discovered
Mardaman was encountered by archaeologists from the University of Tübingen, whoóers have been conducting excavations in the Kurdistan Autonomous Region since 2013. Translation of clay cuneiform tablets found a year ago has revealed an ancient secret of the. The site of their discovery known today as the village of Bassetki appears to be an ancient królevish city of Mardaman.
According to archaeologistóin the origins of the city dates back to the 2800s – 2650 p.n. e. Swój peak Mardaman reached in the 1900s – 1700 p.n.e. During this time, the city was repeatedly conquered and destroyed. It was the capital of królest, and then provinces.
Last summer, 92 cuneiform tablets were discovered in a ceramic vessel found in the ruins of a large building. The writing was deciphered by Betina Faist of the University of Heidelberg. Used photos textów of the tablets and step by step revealed the history of the city and the region. To the surprise of the archaeologistóin Faist was able to identify the site of the find as the ancient city of Mardaman.
As the plaques indicate, it was the administrative seat of a Central Assyrian governor named Assur-nasir. The plates show róThe governor’s administrative and commercial affairs. At that time Mardaman was part of a large empire, but there were róalso the periods when it was an independent królestwo.
By translating the tablets, the archaeologists were able to put their findings into a broader context. – Suddenly it was clear that we had unearthed the palace of an Assyrian governor – said Professor Peter Pf, who directed the excavationsälzner. Clay tablets pointed to a hitherto unknown province of the Assyrian Empire.
The name Mardaman is mentioned in several other ancient sourcesódles found at other archaeological sites, but until now researchers did not know where the city was located. According to the sourceódeles, it was the center of the królestwo, whoóre was conquered by one of the greatest rulers of theóat that timeów, Shamshi-Adad I in 1786. p.n.e. and integrated into his empire. The same sourcesódles also convict that just a few years after that, Mardaman was an independent króA country under the rule of Tish-Ulme. After several years of prosperity, the city was conquered by górski Turukku people.
– The cuneiform texts and our findings from the Bassetta excavation now make it clear that this was not the end of it. The city continued to exist and achieved great importance as the seat of the governor between 1250 and 1200 p.n.e. – explained Pfälzner.
But the history of Mardaman can also be reconstructed thanks to the source of theóThe clay tablets date from the period of the Third Dynasty of Ur around 2100-2000 p.n.e. Mardaman is presented in them as an important city on the póThe northern fringes of the Mesopotamian empire. The oldest source ofóThe records mentioning Mardaman come from the Akkadian Empire, whichóre considered the first empire in the history of the. They mention that the city was first destroyed around 2250 r. p.n.e. By Naram-Sin, the most powerful Akkadian ruler
A ceramic vessel in whichóhe cuneiform tablets were found encased in a thick layer of clay, which, according to archaeologistów testifies that it was buried deliberately. – Perhaps the information on the plates was meant to be protected and preserved for posterity – assessed Pfälzner.
Clay tablets make new contributions to Mesopotamian geography. Its discovery may provide indicationsówek to the location of other ancient cities in the region. Archaeologists are confident that future excavations at Bassetta will bring many interesting discoveries. Fortunately, the ancient city was saved from the looting that has recently haunted other archaeological sites in Iraq.